A unified model of mean-time-to-failure for electromigration, thermomigration, and stress-migration based on entropy production

King-Ning Tu*, A. M. Gusak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

We have revisited Black's equation of mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) for electromigration from the viewpoint that in irreversible processes, entropy production is the controlling behavior. We justify that the power factor on current density is n = 2, as given in the original Black's equation. Furthermore, on the basis of entropy production, we provide a unified model of MTTF for thermomigration and stress-migration. We note that up to now, no MTTF for thermomigration and stress-migration is given.

Original languageEnglish
Article number075109
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume126
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Aug 2019

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