The relationship between the conformational properties of 1-34 human parathyroid hormone [hPTH(1-34)] and the oxidation of its methionine residues, Met8 and Met18, by hydrogen peroxide is analyzed as a function of pH by measuring the rates of oxidation and by performing MD simulations with an explicit representation of water molecules. Between pH 4 and pH 8, both Met8 and Met18 have nearly pH independent rates of oxidation, and Met18 is oxidized at a rate that is 90-100% of that of freeMet and 10-20% faster than that of Met8. We also found that average 2SWCNs calculated from MD simulations correlate well to the rates of oxidation of Met8 and Met18. The use of 2SWCNs is based on the mechanism that we proposed, the water-mediated mechanism, in which water molecules stabilize the transition state via specific interactions, but the transfer of protons (acid-catalyzed mechanism) does not play a role [Chu, J. W., and Trout, B. L. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (3), 900-908]. Only at very low pH values, pH 1 for the oxidation of freeMet, does the acid-catalyzed oxidation mechanism become important. For the oxidation of Met8 and Met18 in hPTH(1-34), the acid-catalyzed mechanism becomes significant at a higher pH value, pH 2, probably due to the proximity of nearby acidic residues to Met8 (Glu4) and Met18 (Glu22). In this study, we have demonstrated that the chemistry of oxidation and the structure of polypeptides can be correlated via a detailed understanding of the reaction mechanism, appropriate sampling of configurational space, and a suitable choice of a structural property, water coordination number.