This paper presents a similarity-based fuzzy learning approach with a two-layer optimization scheme to make fuzzy systems more compact and accuracy. Two ways to improve fuzzy learning algorithms are considered in this paper, including the pruning strategy for simplifying the structure of fuzzy systems and the optimization scheme for parameters optimization. So far as the pruning strategy is concerned, the purpose aims at refining the fuzzy rule base by the similarity analysis of fuzzy sets, fuzzy numbers, fuzzy membership functions or fuzzy rules. Through the similarity analysis, the complete rules can be probably kept by decreasing the redundant rules in the rule base of fuzzy systems. Moreover, the optimization scheme can be regarded as a two-layer parameters optimization in the entire work, because the parameters of the initial fuzzy model have been fine tuning by two phases gradation on layer for discovering a better local minimum.