The holographic data storage system (HDSS) is a page-oriented storage system with advantages of great capacity and high speed. The page-oriented recording breaks the tradition of the optical storage of one-point recording. As the signal image is retrieved from the storage material in the HDSS, various noises influences the image and then the data retrieve will be difficultly from the image by using the thresholding method. For progressing on the thresholding method, a recognition method, based on the structural similarity, is proposed to replace the thresholding method in the HDSS. The recognition method is implemented that the image comparison between the receive image and reference image is performed by the structural similarity method to find the most similar reference image to the received image. In the experiment, by using recognition method, the bit error rate (BER) results in 26% decrease less than using the thresholding method in the HDSS. Owing to some strong effects, such as non-uniform intensity and strong speckle, still influencing on the received image, the recognition method is seemed to be slightly better than thresholding method. In the future, the strong effects would be reduced to improve the quality of the receive image and then the result of using the recognition method may be vastly better than the thresholding method.