This paper develops a new analytical solution for the aquifer system, which comprises an unconfined aquifer on the top, a semi-confined aquifer at the bottom and an aquitard between them. This new solution is derived from the Boussinesq equation for the unconfined aquifer and one-dimensional leaky confined flow equation for the lower aquifer using the perturbation method, considering the water table over-height at the remote boundary. The head fluctuation predicted from this solution is generally greater than the one solved from the linearized Boussinesq equation when the ratio of the tidal amplitude to the thickness of unconfined aquifer is large. It is found that both submarine groundwater discharges from upper and lower aquifers increase with tidal amplitude-aquifer thickness ratio and may be underestimated if the discharge is calculated based on the average head fluctuation. The effects of the aquifer parameters and linearization of the Boussinesq equation on the normalized head fluctuation are also investigated.
- Boussinesq equation
- perturbation analysis
- submarine groundwater discharge
- tidal fluctuation