A new approach to covert communication via PDF files

I. Shi Lee, Wen-Hsiang Tsai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


A new covert communication method via PDF files is proposed. A secret message, after being encoded by a special ASCII code and embedded at between-word and between-character locations in the text of a PDF file, becomes invisible in the window of a common PDF reader, creating a steganographic effect for secret transmission through the PDF file. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-565
Number of pages9
JournalSignal Processing
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2010


  • ASCII codes
  • Covert communication
  • Data hiding
  • Invisible codes
  • PDF files and readers

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