A Low-Profile High-Efficiency Fast Battery Charger With Unifiable Constant-Current and Constant-Voltage Regulation

Yong Qu, Wei Shu, Lei Qiu, Yen Cheng Kuan, Shiuh Hua Wood Chiang, Joseph S. Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Present universal serial bus (USB) battery chargers often suffer from limitations to meet the increasing demand for quick charging due to compromised power efficiency and complicated hardware implementation. In this paper, we propose a charge unifiable (QU) control scheme that enables a battery charger to improve power efficiency in a low-profile hardware manner. This scheme features fully soft-switching (vis-à-vis hard switching) and single control scheme (vis-à-vis multiple) for distinct constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) charging modes. To the best of authors' knowledge, the proposed QU control scheme is the first to simultaneously offer fully soft-switching, innate CC-and-CV regulation, and seamless CC-to-CV transition. To verify the proposed design, we monolithically realize a low-profile high-efficiency fast battery charger based on this scheme. The prototype embodying a tiny 470-nH output inductor supports a maximum input voltage of 16V, output voltage of 2.2-4.2 V, output current of 0.1-2 A, and peak power efficiency of 96.2%. When benchmarked against state-of-the-art counterparts, the proposed charger features at least 2.1x smaller inductor and 7.2% higher power efficiency at both the maximum and the minimum output power charging scenarios. Further, this charger is the only design that features ≥ 91% power efficiency in the whole load range.

Keywords

  • Batteries
  • Battery charger
  • Battery chargers
  • control scheme
  • high power efficiency.
  • Inductors
  • quick charging
  • small size
  • Switches
  • Universal Serial Bus
  • Zero current switching
  • Zero voltage switching

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