A low cost and large-scale synthesis of 3D photonic crystal with SP2 lattice symmetry

Mei-Li Hsieh, Shu-Cheng Yu, Kaiser Alex, Jhen-Hong Yang, Frey Brian J., Bhat Ishwara, Dahal Rajendra, Bhattacharya Sayak, John Sajeev, Shawn-Yu Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work, a novel lithographic method is proposed to prepare three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal (PC) that is different from conventional top-down and bottom-up approaches. The method combines a 2D optical mask and off-the-axis double optical exposures to create a desirable 3D PC structure. Since the method uses only two optical exposures of a photo-resist layer, it is inherently a low-cost, high throughput and wafer-scale lithographic method. The method is implemented to make a slanted post 3D PC having the SP2 lattice symmetry. Three types of SP2 3D PC structures were successfully fabricated with a minimum feature size of d=1.5 mu m over a large scale of 8x10 mm(2), without any observable fabrication defects. The SP2 PCs are: (i) SU8 posts in air background, (ii) air pores in CdS background and (iii) Pt coated on SU8 SP2 templates. A spectroscopic study of the SP2 PCs shows select spectral regions of high reflectance, indicating the existence of a photonic stop band. This low-cost and large-scale method could enable broader technological impacts of 3D PC materials in areas such as thermo-photovoltaics and above room-temperature Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore, this off-axis method could lead to the creation of an entirely new class of slanted-rod based photonic crystals, such as topological photonic crystal in 3D. (C) 2019 Author(s).
Original languageEnglish
Article number085206
JournalAIP Advances
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2019

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