Based on the concept of generalized plasticity, this study proposes a constitutive model to describe the time-dependent behavior and wetting deterioration of sandstone. The proposed model (1) exhibits nonlinear elasticity under hydrostatic and shear loading, (2) follows the associated flow rule for viscoplastic deformation, (3) adopts a creep modulus that varies with the stress ratio, (4) considers the primary and secondary creep behaviors of rock, and (5) considers the effect of wetting deterioration. This model requires 13 material parameters, comprising 3 for elasticity, 7 for plasticity, and 3 for creep. All parameters can be determined easily by following the suggested procedures. The proposed model is first validated by comparison with triaxial tests of sandstone under different hydrostatic stress and cyclic loading conditions. In addition, the model is versatile in simulating time-dependent behavior through a series of multistage creep tests. Finally, to consider the effects of wetting deterioration, triaxial and creep tests under dry and water-saturated conditions are simulated. Comparison of the simulated and experimental data shows that the proposed model can predict the behavior of sandstone in dry and saturated conditions.
- Constitutive model
- Generalized plasticity