A critical appraisal of Individualised Marketing and Travel Blending interventions in Queensland and Western Australia from 1986–2011

Bruce James, Matthew Burke*, Tzu-Hui Yen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Australian governments invested significant sums in voluntary travel behaviour interventions in the 1990s and 2000s. The Travel Blending and Individualised Marketing (IndiMark) schemes based on social marking were highly controversial. This paper explores the rise and fall of the interventions in the two main jurisdictions where they were employed – Queensland and Western Australia. Two research methods were employed. A systematic review of results for all interventions in both jurisdictions is provided, based on project evaluations, with the key measure of efficacy being changes in mode share. Interviews with informants including scheme proponents, managers and senior decision makers were undertaken to identify institutional and policy factors around their successes and failings. The results suggest that there was evidence many interventions achieved cost-effective behaviour change with target populations. But poor evaluations for at least one large-scale roll-out in Queensland proved damaging. The interviews reveal that positive results obtained in the early years were insufficient to maintain broad political support and funding across multiple election cycles when problems emerged. Problems identified included issues of scheme design and implementation, evaluations issues, criticism from both within the travel behaviour field and from other transport sectors, and issues maintaining support from policy makers. The results suggest that aspects of these voluntary behaviour change initiatives warrant further consideration. But interventions and evaluation will need significant redesign and the adoption of new approaches if they are ever to achieve longer term success.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalTravel Behaviour and Society
Volume8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2017

Keywords

  • Individualised Marketing
  • Social marketing
  • Travel Blending
  • Travel demand management

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