A 95-dBA DR Digital Audio Class-D Amplifier Using a Calibrated Digital-to-Pulse Converter

Chih Min Chang, Jieh-Tsorng Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A digital class-D amplifier (CDA) converts an audio digital stream into sound directly and power-efficiently. It first encodes the pulse-code-modulated audio input into a digital pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signal. It needs a digital-to-pulse converter (DPC) to translate this digital PWM signal into a series of analog binary pulses accurately. We report a 5-3 segmented DPC that includes both a counter and a delay line for pulse width conversion. The timing skews along the delay line are detected using a zero-crossing detection scheme and corrected in the digital domain. This calibration can operate continuously in the background. A digital CDA prototype was fabricated using a 65-nm CMOS technology. It includes the aforementioned PWM modulator and DPC. It also integrated an open-loop switching driver to deliver the DPC's output to a speaker. This digital CDA consumes 875 μW under a 1-V supply when the input is zero and no output power is transferred to the external load. It can deliver 13.3 mW to a 32 Ω resistive load in the H-bridge topology with 89% power efficiency. For a 1-kHz sine-wave input, it achieves 95 dBA dynamic range, 93.6 dBA peak SNR, 86.4 dBA peak SNDR, and 0.006% THD at -2-dBFS input level. The core area of the chip is 0.87 × 0.5 mm 2 .

Original languageEnglish
Article number7792595
Pages (from-to)1106-1117
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2017


  • Class-D amplifier
  • digital-analog conversion
  • pulse-width modulation (PWM)
  • switching amplifier
  • timing-skew calibration

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