A 46-GHz direct wide modulation bandwidth amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulator with an embedded voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is proposed in this letter. This circuit is fabricated using a standard commercial bulk 0.13-μm CMOS technology and exhibits a modulation bandwidth wider than 1 GHz with a chip size of 390 × 480 μm2. The recovered time-domain waveform shows a very good eye-pattern opening. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first direct ASK modulator with an embedded VCO in the millimeter-wave regime using CMOS processes.
- Amplitude shift keying (ASK)
- Direct conversion
- Millimeter wave
- Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO)