The functionality of novel parallel and series high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays, which can greatly relax the tradeoff between output power and modulation speed, is demonstrated. Both types of array structure allow improvement in the output power with no degradation in their maximum modulation speed as compared to a single reference unit. The observed invariant electrical-optical bandwidth shown for these array structures is mainly due to the effective reduction of the differential resistance and parasitic capacitance, arising from the Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures fabricated in the VCSEL unit. This in turn minimizes the degradation in the RC-limited bandwidth with the VCSEL arrays. Furthermore, the dense packing of single VCSELs, with Zn-diffusion apertures for optical mode control, minimizes the coupling loss between the output from the array into a standard multimode fiber (MMF). Compared with the single VCSEL unit, the parallel VCSEL array shows a significant enhancement in transmission performance over a standard OM4 MMF, which includes a larger eye margin, a higher signal-to-noise ratio, as well as a higher error-free data rate (48 versus 44 Gbit/sec). The device modeling technique is used to perform device analysis. From the results we can conclude that the improvement with the parallel array is because the value of the internal impedance is closer to the 50-Ω signal source, which minimizes the microwave reflection induced timing jitter in the eye-patterns.
- Optical interconnects
- semiconductor lasers
- vertical cavity surface emitting lasers