The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries. Potential hazards are common in construction sites due to the variability and open elevated working environment. Hazard identification, detecting and correcting potential hazards before an accident occurs, is one of practical and effective methods that are commonly adopted. However, hazard identification relies on tacit knowledge that requires sufficient experience. The current training of trainees (e.g., inspectors and students) in general still relies on lectures to provide them with the knowledge on safety management, regulation, and past accidental cases. Such traditional lectures are not effective in nourishing the required identification ability. This research created a 3D digit construction site model, and developed an interactive hazard-identification game that allows trainees to have realistic hands-on identification experience. We also designed an experiment to evaluate the learning effects and satisfactions of the hazard-identification game as compared with the traditional lectures. The results showed that the hazard-identification game was significantly (p < 0.001) better than the traditional lectures in safety education and training. Also, the students satisfied with the game-based training courses significantly (p < 0.001) more than the other students satisfied with the traditional courses. Virtual environment provides the feasibility of creating various types of job sites and hazards depending on the training objectives, and allows trainees to learn by experiencing in a safe environment. This research establishes and develops a game-based hazard identification training system, which can improve trainees' learning effectiveness and learning satisfaction. The training system can also improve workers' and site managers' hazard awareness, and help them find hazards in their workplace.